IFBB ANTI-DOPING AREA
IF’S CLEAN SPORT SECTION
IFBB IS A SIGNATORY OF THE WORLD ANTIDOPING CODE.
ALL LINKS COME FROM TO THE OFFICIAL WADA WEBSITE AND THE DOCUMENTS PROVIDED IN PDF FORMAT ARE OFFICIALY APROVED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF BODYBUILDING & FITNESS (IFBB).
In the introduction, the IF may wish to state its commitment to clean sport and how this ties in with the core values of the sport and add general information about the IF’s anti-doping program such as the mandatory annual anti-doping report with general testing statistics.
WHAT IS DOPING?
Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs):
Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s sample
Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
Refusing to submit to sample collection after being notified
Failure to file athlete whereabouts information and missed tests
Tampering with any part of the doping control process
Possession of a prohibited substance or method
Trafficking a prohibited substance or method
Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an athlete
Complicity in an ADRV
Prohibited association with athlete support personnel who has engaged in doping
WHY IS DOPING IN SPORT PROHIBITED?
The use of doping substances or doping methods to enhance performance is fundamentally wrong and is detrimental to the overall spirit of sport. Drug misuse can be harmful to an athlete’s health and to other athletes competing in the sport. It severely damages the integrity, image and value of sport, whether or not the motivation to use drugs is to improve performance. To achieve integrity and fairness in sport, a commitment to clean sport is critical.
WHAT DO ATHLETES AND ATHLETE SUPPORT PERSONNEL NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ANTI-DOPING?
“Every athlete has the right to clean sport!”
Any athlete may be tested in- and out-of-competition, anytime, anywhere and with no advance notice.
The principle of strict liability applies in anti-doping – if it is in the athlete’s body, the athlete is responsible for it.
Athletes’ responsibilities include (but are not limited to):
complying with the (in line with the );
being available for sample collection (urine or blood), whether in-competition or out- of-competition;
ensuring that no prohibited substance enters his body and that no prohibited method is used;
making sure that any treatment is not prohibited according to the in force and checking this with the prescribing physicians, or directly with if necessary;
applying to the IF (or national anti-doping organization if the athlete is a national level athlete ) if no alternative permitted treatment is possible and a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) is required (see ).
reporting immediately for sample collection after being notified of a doping control;
ensuring the accuracy of the information entered on the doping control form duringsample collection (including stating any medications and supplements taken withinthe seven days prior to sample collection, and where the sample collected is a bloodsample, blood transfusions within the previous three months);
cooperating with anti-doping organizations investigating anti-doping rules violations(ADRVs); and
not working with coaches, trainers, physicians or other athlete support personnelwho are ineligible on account of an ADRV or who have been criminally convicted orprofessionally disciplined in relation to doping (see WADA’s Prohibited AssociationList) [add any IF specific information/ list]
Note: during doping control, the athlete must remain within direct observation of the Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperone at all times from when the initial contact is made until the completion of the sample collection procedure. The athlete must also produce identification upon request.
Athletes’ rights include (but are not limited to):
during the doping control:
– bringing a representative and, if available, an interpreter;
– asking for additional information about the sample collection process;
– requesting a delay in reporting to the doping control station for valid reasons (International Standard for Testing and Investigations Art. 5.4.4); and o requesting modifications for athletes with impairments (if applicable).
requesting and attending the B sample analysis (in the case of an Adverse Analytical Finding); and
in the case of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) being asserted, the athlete has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.
Coaches, trainers, managers, agents and other support personnel have a role in defending clean sport and supporting the athletes in the anti-doping processes.
Athlete Support Personnels’ obligations include (but are not limited to):
knowing and complying with all applicable anti-doping policies and rules, including the (in line with the World); and
refraining from possessing a prohibited substance (or a prohibited method)*, administering any such substance or method to an athlete, trafficking, covering up an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV) or other forms of complicity and associating with a person convicted of doping (prohibited association). These are ADRVs applicable to Athlete Support Personnel under Article 2 of the World Anti-Doping Code and Article 2 of the IF’s Anti-Doping Rules.
* unless the Athlete Support Personnel can establish that the possession is consistent with a TUE granted to an athlete or other acceptable justification. Acceptable justification would include, for example, a team doctor carrying Prohibited Substances for dealing with acute and emergency situations.
Athlete Support Personnel’s rights include (but are not limited to):
In the case of an ADRV being asserted, the Athlete Support Personnel has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.
WHAT IS WADA AND WHAT IS ITS ROLE?
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in 1999 as an independent international agency and is composed and funded equally by the sport movement and governments of the world. Its key activities include in particular scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, investigations and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code and its application by Code signatories (International Federations, National Anti-Doping Organizations, Major Event Organizations, etc.).
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION (IF)?
Anti-doping activities required of IFs by the World Anti-Doping Code include conducting in-competition and out-of-competition testing, providing education programs and sanctioning those who commit anti-doping rule violations.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE NATIONAL ANTI-DOPING ORGANIZATIONS (NADOs)?
NADOs are organizations designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement national anti-doping rules, carry out anti-doping education, plan tests and adjudicate anti-doping rule violations at a national level. They may also test athletes from other countries competing within that nation’s borders.
Check the list of NADOs to find out who to contact in your country.
If a NADO has not been designated in a country, the National Olympic Committee (NOC), if there is no NADO, takes over these responsibilities. In a number of regions of the world, countries have pooled their resources together to create a Regional Anti-Doping Organization (RADO) responsible for conducting anti-doping activities in the region in support of NADOs.
Check the list of RADOs.
RADOs bring together geographically-clustered groups of countries where there are limited or no anti-doping activities. The RADOs provide anti-doping education for athletes, coaches and support personnel, testing of athletes, training of local personnel to undertake this task and an administrative framework to operate within.
The aim of testing is to detect and deter doping among athletes to protect clean athletes.
Any athlete under the testing jurisdiction of the IF may be tested at any time, with no advance notice, in- or out-of-competition, and be required to provide a urine or blood sample.
WHAT ARE TESTING POOLS AND WHY ARE WHEREABOUTS IMPORTANT FOR CLEAN SPORT?
No-advance notice out-of-competition testing is one of the most powerful means of deterrence and detection of doping. To support this type of testing, the IF has created testing pools as part of its testing program.
Certain athletes in the IF testing pools, such as those in the Registered Testing Pool (RTP) [insert name of lower-tier or team IF testing pools too if applicable], are required to provide information on their whereabouts in ADAMS, WADA’s online anti-doping administration and management system.
The IF updates the composition of the testing pools (RTP and [insert name of lower-tier or team IF testing pools too if applicable]) regularly/at least yearly. Athletes in the RTP are chosen based on set criteria. [To show objectivity and transparency, the IF may choose to publish its criteria].
HOW DO ATHLETES KNOW THEY NEED TO PROVIDE WHEREABOUTS?
Athletes who need to provide whereabouts in ADAMS for the IF are notified by the IF (or by their national federation) of their inclusion in the IF’s testing pool as well as what information exactly is required of them, how to use ADAMS, deadlines to submit this information and any consequences if the information required is not submitted.
WHAT DO RTP ATHLETES NEED TO KNOW?
[Insert IF specific information (such as the whereabouts process, requirements of each testing pool and consequences if these are not met)].
Should athletes have any query on ADAMS, such as how to submit whereabouts, please contact [insert IF staff + contact details here].
WHAT SHOULD ATHLETES DO IF THEY WISH TO RETIRE OR RETURN TO COMPETITION AFTER RETIRING?
All IF-licensed athletes [the IF will need to adapt this if there is no license system in place] who decide to retire from competition must inform the IF [include information on IF’s retirement process and any relevant forms].
For RTP athletes, as soon as the retirement is officially confirmed to the IF, the athlete will be withdrawn from the IF’s RTP with immediate effect. If an athlete wishes to resume competing, they will not be able to do so until they have given the IF written notice of their intent to resume competing and made themselves available for testing for a period of six months. Please consult Article 5.7 of the IF Anti-Doping Rules.
WHAT SHOULD AN ATHLETE, ATHLETE SUPPORT PERSONNEL OR ANY PERSON AWARE OF DOPING PRACTICES IN THE SPORT DO?
[Insert ADO policy for the gathering of anti-doping information and intelligence (e.g. person to contact, Report Doping link or hotline number, etc)] Recommendation: have Report Doping link in a prominent position on the homepage.
PROHIBITED LIST OF SUBSTANCES AND METHODS
1. HOW DOES A SUBSTANCE OR METHOD MAKE IT TO THE PROHIBITED LIST?
The WADA Prohibited List may include any substance and methods that satisfy any two of the following three criteria:
- It has the potential to enhance or enhances sport performance;
- It represents an actual or potential health risk to the Athlete;
- It violates the spirit of sport (this definition is outlined in the Code).
Substances or methods which mask the effect or detection of prohibited substances are also prohibited. In addition, a substance which has not been approved for human use is likely to be prohibited as well.
The Prohibited List is reviewed annually in consultation with scientific, medical and anti-doping experts to ensure it reflects current medical and scientific evidence and doping practices. The Prohibited List comes into effect on January 1st of each year and is published by WADA three months prior to coming into force; however, in exceptional circumstances, a substance may be added to the Prohibited List at any time.
2. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF PLATELET DERIVED PREPARATIONS (PRP)?
Platelet derived preparations (PRP) are not prohibited. Despite the presence of some growth factors, platelet-derived preparations were removed from the Prohibited List as recent studies on PRP do not demonstrate any performance enhancement beyond a potential therapeutic effect.
Note that individual growth factors from any other source remain prohibited under S.2.
3. IS PLASMAPHERESIS PROHIBITED?
The status of plasmapheresis is different for plasma donors and recipients:
- For the plasma donor, plasmapheresis is prohibited under section M1.1 because the donor’s own red blood cells (and other blood components) are being reintroduced back into their own circulatory system after the plasma or blood components have been separated outside of the person’s body.
- For the plasma recipient, who is receiving plasma from a different donor, plasmapheresis is not prohibited under M1.1 or M1.3 as the patient receives only plasma, but not whole blood or red blood cells. For the plasma recipient, plasmapheresis would only be prohibited under M2.2 if it is not legitimately received in the course of hospital treatment when the volume is more than 100 mL per 12 hour period.
4. IS INTRAVENOUS LASER THERAPY PROHIBITED?
Intravenous laser therapy is prohibited under M1.3 as defined by “Any form of intravascular manipulation of blood…”
5. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF METHYLHEXANEAMINE (MHA)?
MHA is known by many different names, including, but not limited to, dimethylamylamine, 1,3-dimethylamylamine, dimethylpentylamine, methylhexamine, methylhexanamine, 1,3-dimethylpentylamine. It is prohibited In-Competition only as a specified stimulant under Section 6.b.
MHA is a stimulant that was sold as a medicine up to the early 1970s, but is no longer used for medical treatment. MHA is currently included as a constituent of some dietary supplements sold today, including via the Internet.
6. DOES GERANIUM OIL CONTAIN METHYLHEXANEAMINE (MHA)?
Scientific studies have clearly demonstrated that natural geranium oil does not contain MHA. The use of geranium oil cannot be considered as being the source of MHA or related metabolites in a urine sample collected for anti-doping purposes. However, athletes should be aware that MHA has been marketed under various names, including “geranium oil” so athletes should be extremely cautious about using supplements with this ”ingredient”.
MHA is a stimulant that was sold as a medicine up to the early 1970s, but is no longer used for medical treatment. MHA is currently included as a constituent of some dietary supplements sold today, including via the Internet.
MHA is prohibited In-Competition only as a stimulant under section S6.b.
7. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF CLENBUTEROL?
Clenbuterol is an anabolic agent that prohibited at all times (i.e., both in- and out-of-competition). There is no threshold under which this substance is not prohibited.
At present, and based on expert opinions, there is no plan for WADA to introduce a threshold level for clenbuterol.
It is possible that under certain circumstances the presence of a low level of clenbuterol in an athlete sample can be the result of food contamination. However, each case is different and all aspects and context of the case need to be taken into account during the results management process. According to the World Anti-Doping Code, the athlete has the opportunity to explain how a prohibited substance entered their body during the results management and/or or hearing phase of their case.
WADA is working closely with specific countries, International Federations and event organizers to help minimize the risk of meat contamination. Food contamination as a public health issue is primarily a matter for governments to resolve.
8. WHAT IS A ‘SPECIFIED SUBSTANCE’?
It should be clear that all substances on the Prohibited List are prohibited. The sub-classification of substances as “Specified” or “Non-Specified” are important only in the sanctioning process.
A “Specified Substance” is a substance which potentially allows, under defined conditions, for a greater reduction of a sanction when an athlete tests positive for that particular substance.
The purpose of the sub-classifications of “Specified” or “Non-Specified” on the Prohibited List is to recognize that it is possible for a substance to enter an athlete’s body inadvertently, and therefore allow a tribunal more flexibility when making a sanctioning decision.
“Specified” substances are not necessarily less effective doping agents than “Non-Specified” substances, nor do they relieve athletes of the strict liability rule that makes them responsible for all substances that enter their body.
9. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF COLOSTRUM?
Colostrum is not specifically prohibited, however it can contain certain quantities of IGF-1 and other growth factors which are prohibited and can influence the outcome of anti-doping tests. Therefore, WADA does not recommend the ingestion of this product.
10. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF DEER ANTLER VELVET SPRAY?
Deer Antler Velvet Spray may contain IGF-1, which is a prohibited substance and has been included on the Prohibited List for many years. On the other hand, very small quantities of IGF-1 can be found naturally in animal products (e.g. colostrums, deer antler velvet).
There can be no guarantee that IGF-1 taken orally will not influence the plasma level of IGF-1, which may influence the result of anti-doping tests.
WADA recommends that athletes exercise extreme caution with this supplement because it could lead to a positive test. Athletes who use these types of products do so at their own risk.
In addition, like other supplements, these products may contain prohibited substances not disclosed on the product label.
11. WHY IS GLYCEROL NO LONGER PROHIBITED ?
Effective 1 January 2018 glycerol was removed from the Prohibited List. This decision comes in consideration of the information published in scientific articles since 2012 that particularly addresses the ability of glycerol to influence the athlete‘s plasma volume and parameters of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP), where the magnitude of glycerol-derived effects is regarded as minimal.
12. IS DIALYSIS A PROHIBITED METHOD?
Dialysis (also known as hemodialysis) is a medical treatment for patients with kidney failure. Dialysis is a prohibited method under M1.1, as blood is taken out from the patient and filtered, before being reintroduced back into the patient’s circulatory system. An athlete needing dialysis treatment requires a Therapeutic Use Exemption.
13. HOW ARE SUBSTANCES NAMED AND CATETGORISED ON THE PROHIBITED LIST?
WADA names substances according to the following convention:
- For substances that have been given an International Non-proprietary Name (INN), as published by the World Health Organisation, this name is used first.
- Only when the commonly-used name of a substance is better known than the INN, this commonly-used name appears in parenthesis.
- When the INN is not known, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature is used, accompanied in some cases by the commonly-used name. As INNs are generated, the Prohibited List evolves with the addition of the INN and if deemed beneficial, the previous IUPAC name may be still included for a period of time.
- Common examples of substances and methods are provided in all sections but these examples are not exhaustive.
14. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF MANNITOL USED BY INHALATION?
Mannitol by inhalation is permitted e.g. to perform bronchial provocation testing in asthma.
Mannitol is only prohibited when administered intravenously.
15. ARE EYE DROPS CONTAINING BRINZOLAMIDE OR DORZOLAMIDE PROHIBITED?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors dorzolamide and brinzolamide, when administered topically in the eye, are not prohibited. The rationale behind this exception is these drugs do not have a diuretic effect when topically applied.
16. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF EYE DROPS CONTAINING BETA-BLOCKERS?
Eye drops containing beta-blockers are prohibited in particular sports under section P1 because the ophthalmic administration of beta-blockers results in systemic concentrations of the drugs similar to when the medication is taken orally.
17. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF INTRAVENOUS INJECTIONS OR INFUSIONS AS PART OF A MEDICAL PROCEDURE?
Intravenous infusions or injections are not prohibited if they are legitimately received in the course of a hospital treatment, surgical procedure or clinical investigation or if they do not exceed 100 mL per 12 hour period. Otherwise they require a Therapeutic Use Exemption.
18. WHY ARE INTRAVENOUS INJECTIONS OR INFUSIONS PROHIBITED?
The intent of section M2.2 is to prohibit hemodilution, overhydration and the administration of prohibited substances by means of intravenous infusion. An intravenous infusion is defined as the delivery of fluids through a vein using a needle or similar device.
The legitimate medical uses of intravenous infusions may not need a Therapeutic Use Exemption in certain settings (hospital treatment, surgical procedures or clinical investigations). In other situations, such as trauma with or without blood loss, severe dehydration, intractable vomiting, the athlete should receive appropriate treatment and apply for a retroactive Therapeutic Use Exemption as soon as reasonable.
Injections with a simple syringe are not prohibited as a method if the injected substance is not prohibited and if the volume does not exceed 100 mL every 12 hours.
19. WHY IS PSEUDOEPHEDRINE PROHIBITED AT CERTAIN CONCENTRATIONS?
Pseudoephedrine is a specified stimulant prohibited In-Competition only at a urinary threshold of 150 µg/mL. This decision was based on the results of controlled excretion studies as well as scientific literature indicating that only high doses of pseudoephedrine improved sports performance.
Given the wide availability of pseudoephedrine, particularly as a component of multi-ingredient cold and influenza treatments, athletes and their support personnel should be advised the following.
- Athletes should stop taking Pseudoephedrine-containing medicines at least 24 hours before competition. For therapeutic applications during the In-Competition period, consider the use of alternative permitted medications in consultation with a physician, or apply for a Therapeutic Use Exemption for the use of Pseudoephedrine for therapeutic reasons.
- The established urinary threshold level of 150 µg/mL may be reached (rarely, but possibly) in some individuals within 6-20 hours of taking some long-acting therapeutic formulations.
- The threshold level of 150 µg/mL has been established based on the intake of therapeutic doses of pseudoephedrine, defined as a maximum daily dose of 240 mg pseudoephedrine taken either as:
- four daily oral administrations (one every 4-6 hours) of a 60 mg (or 2 x 30 mg) immediate release preparation (i.e. tablet, capsule or liquid) or
- two daily administrations (one every 12 hours) of a 120 mg extended release preparation
- one daily administration of a 240 mg extended release preparation.
- As an example, a single daily dose of 3 x 60 mg tablets would be a supratherapeutic dose that may lead to an Adverse Analytical Finding.
20. ARE ALL DRUGS NOT MENTIONED ON THE PROHIBITED LIST PERMITTED?
The fact that a substance is not on the Prohibited List does not mean that it is not prohibited since most categories only include some common examples and are not exhaustive.
In addition, section S0 (Non-approved substances) includes substances used for doping which are not included in other sections of the Prohibited List that are not approved by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use. This includes drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development, discontinued drugs, designer drugs or veterinary drugs. A designer drug is defined as a synthetic analogue of a legally restricted or prohibited drug, devised to circumvent drug laws.
Most prohibited substances fall in one of the S1 to S9 categories. Therefore, only in rare occasions a substance is included in S0 after a case-by-case evaluation.
21. IS CATHETERIZATION PERMITTED?
Catheterization may be necessary for medical purposes. It is only prohibited if used to tamper or attempt to tamper with the integrity of a sample or sample collection.
22. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A “DELIVERED” VS “METERED” DOSE FROM MY ASTHMA INHALER?
For beta-2-agonists, given by ANY device, the amount of drug can be expressed in two ways:
- Metered Dose – the quantity of drug substance contained in the delivery device (inhaler)
- Delivered dose – the amount of drug that is available to the lungs; delivered from the mouthpiece of the inhalation device.
The Prohibited List refers to the delivered dose for formoterol and the metered dose for salbutamol and salmeterol to reflect the most common labelling practices around the world.
The labelling convention of asthma inhalers may vary between countries – to determine the delivered dose of a product in a particular country, read the accompanying medical literature and labelling of the inhalation device you are using. Note that there are many different types of inhalers; a Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI), i.e. a “puffer” is one type. Other delivery devices include, but are not limited to: Diskus, Turbuhalers, Ellipta, Aerolizer, Genuair.
Nebulizers are not prohibited as a device; however the amount of beta-2-agonist administered by nebulisation may surpass the allowed maximum doses of salbutamol, salmeterol or formoterol by inhalation; therefore the dose may be prohibited.
23. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF VITAMIN B12, AS IT CONTAINS COBALT?
Vitamin B12 is not prohibited because the cobalt present does not have the same effects as elemental cobalt or cobalt salts. In addition, the amount of cobalt that is naturally contained in food is not significant and would not be enough to act as a doping agent. However, if a dietary supplement includes cobalt, for example inorganic cobalt or cobalt salts, then it would be considered prohibited.
24. ARE HYPOXIC CHAMBERS PERMITTED?
Hypoxic chambers artificially induce hypoxic conditions. Their use is not prohibited by WADA, however some sporting authorities ban the use of hypoxic chambers during competitions under their sport rules. Athletes must check the rules that apply to hypoxic chambers with the sporting authorities governing the events they compete in.
25. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF HIGENAMINE?
Higenamine is prohibited under S3 as a non-selective beta-2-agonist. Higenamine is documented to be a constituent of the plant Tinospora crispa, which can be found in some dietary supplements.
26. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN?
Supplemental oxygen administered by inhalation, but not intravenously, is permitted. However, some sports authorities may prohibit its use in their regulations. Athletes must check the rules that apply to supplemental oxygen use with the sporting authorities governing the events they compete in.
27. CAN I TEST POSITIVE FOR PHENYLETHYLAMINE THROUGH FOOD CONSUMPTION?
Regular food consumption will not yield sufficient levels of phenylethylamine to result in an Adverse Analytical Finding.
28. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF STEM CELL TREATMENT?
Non-transformed stem cells used alone (with no growth factor or other hormones added) for healing injuries are not prohibited as long as they return the functioning of the affected area to normal and do not enhance it.
29. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF ACTOVEGIN?
Actovegin is a deproteinized calf serum. According to the manufacturer, it contains peptides, amino acids, nucleic acids but does not contain cells or proteins. Independent analysis of the product has not detected prohibited growth factors, proteins in general, or steroids. So based on this, Actovegin is not prohibited except if it is used as an intravenous infusion or injection of more than 100 mL each 12 hours.
30. WHAT IS GENE EDITING?
Gene editing is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is manipulated at specific sites. Gene editing technology has advanced impressively in recent years and is a promising gene therapy technique for the treatment of, for example, genetic diseases or cancer; at this point only a few early stage clinical trials are taking place worldwide. This has prompted WADA to evaluate possible misuses of gene editing for doping and as a consequence, has included these technologies in the definition of Gene Doping in the 2018 Prohibited List. Despite sensational and scientifically unfounded claims occasionally seen in the media, WADA is not presently aware of any athletes who are gene doping. Nevertheless we want to be ahead of the game and make it clear that when or if such techniques as gene editing would be used to enhance performance beyond a return to normal function, then it would be prohibited.
31. WHY IS ALCOHOL NO LONGER PROHIBITED?
Effective 1 January 2018, and after careful consideration and extensive consultation, Alcohol is excluded from the Prohibited List. The intent of this change is not to compromise the integrity or safety of any sport where alcohol use is a concern, but rather to endorse a different means of enforcing bans on alcohol use in these sports. The International Federations (IF) affected by this change were alerted sufficiently in advance in order to amend their rules and to put in place protocols to test for alcohol use and appropriately sanction athletes who do not abide by the rules of their sport. Control of the process will allow IF more flexibility in applying rules or thresholds as they see fit. The National Anti-Doping Organizations are no longer obliged to conduct tests but may assist IF and National Federations where appropriate.
DIETARY AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS
1. ARE SUPPLEMENTS SAFE TO TAKE?
Extreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use.
The use of dietary supplements by athletes is a serious concern because in many countries the manufacturing and labeling of supplements do not follow strict rules, which may lead to a supplement containing an undeclared substance that is prohibited under anti-doping regulations. A significant number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements and attributing an Adverse Analytical Finding to a poorly labeled dietary supplement is not an adequate defense in a doping hearing.
The risks of taking supplements should be weighed against the potential benefit that may be obtained, and athletes must appreciate the negative consequences of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation as a result of taking a contaminated supplement.
Use of supplement products that have been subjected to one of the available quality assurance schemes can help to reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of an inadvertent doping infringement.
2. CAN A DIETARY/NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT COMPANY HAVE THEIR SUPPLEMENTS TESTED BY WADA?
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is not involved in the testing of dietary/nutritional supplements.
The Laboratory Code of Ethics, in the International Standard for Laboratories (Section 4.4 of Annex B), states that WADA-accredited laboratories shall not engage in analyzing commercial material or preparations (e.g. dietary supplements) unless specifically requested by an Anti-Doping Organization as part of a doping case investigation. The Laboratory shall not provide results, documentation or advice that, in any way, suggests endorsement of products or services.
3. CAN A SUPPLEMENT COMPANY HAVE THEIR PRODUCTS APPROVED BY WADA?
WADA is not involved in any certification process regarding supplements and therefore does not certify or endorse manufacturers or their products. WADA does not control the quality or the claims of the supplements industry which may, from time to time, claim that their products have been approved or certified by WADA.
If a company wishes to promote its products to the sport community, it is their responsibility as a manufacturer to ensure that the products do not lead to any anti-doping rule violation. Some third-party testers of supplements exist, and this may reduce the risk of contamination but not eliminate it.
- SANCTIONED ATHLETES AND SUSPENSIONS
PROHIBITED ASSOCIATION LIST
As part of its role in providing guidance to anti-doping organisations, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes a global list of Athlete Support Personnel who are currently suspended from working with Athletes or other Persons under the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code’s new, ‘Prohibited Association’ (Article 2.10) rule.
1. IFBB Anti-Doping Rules
2. IFBB Doping Control Pocket Guide
3. Usefull Links
ALPHA – eLearning Tool for Athletes
ALPHA was developed by WADA with the input of eLearning specialists, athletes, anti-doping specialists and social scientists. It is currently available in 7 languages. The aim of this tool is to modify attitudes and have an impact on intentions to dope. It provides factual information about anti-doping (Ethical Reasons not to Dope, Medical Reasons not to Dope, the Doping Control Process, Rights and Responsibilities, TUEs, Whereabouts) and values based activities.
WADA’s Play True Quiz is an interactive computer game that tests athletes and their entourage’s knowledge about anti-doping. It is currently available in 36 languages. As an integral element of its Outreach Program, WADA devoted considerable resources to the development of this interactive computer game which has been showcased at major events including the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games and many international events.
The Youth Quiz was developed to target a younger audience by providing them core anti- doping information that better suits their level. This interactive tool has been featured at the Youth Olympic Games and other youth events. The Youth Quiz is currently available in 34 languages.
CoachTrue is an online learning tool that enables coaches to learn more about the fight against doping, and thus to be more effective in preventing it. This software was developed by WADA. It provides separate platforms for elite athlete coaches and recreational sport coaches.
The Coach’s Took Kit provides anti-doping organizations, coaching associations and universities with material that can be integrated directly into existing coach education curricula or used as a stand-alone workshop.
The SPTK is designed to inform sport physicians and team doctors of their specific responsibilities relating to anti-doping to ensure they are fully informed and understand issues specific to them. It also includes information on specific policies relating to Major Games such as needle policies, bringing and prescribing medication at Games.
IF checklist of publishing requirements and recommendations
An IF should try to use its website as an international anti-doping information platform for athletes, athlete support personnel (coaches, sport physicians, etc), member federations, clubs and other website users. IF information and education programs must meet World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) 18.2 requirements and as such, the website should provide information on:
- The Prohibited List
- Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs)
- Consequences of doping
- Doping control procedures
- Athletes’ and athlete support personnel’s rights and responsibilities
- Risk of nutritional supplements
- Harm of doping to the spirit of sport
- Applicable whereabouts requirements
The end goal is to promote doping-free sport online and answer easily and quickly, via the website, the majority of anti-doping related questions of key stakeholders.
Below is a checklist of elements that are mandatory to publish on the IF’s website under the WADC and International Standards, and a list of what would be recommended on the website, i.e. considered as “best practice”.
Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs): publication of ADRVs sanctioned by the IF or under the jurisdiction of the IF (WADC Art. 14.3, with publication details in 14.3.1 to 14.3.6)
Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) process: “Each IF and Major Event Organization must publish a notice (at a minimum, by posting it in a conspicuous place on its website and sending it to WADA) that sets out clearly (1) which Athletes coming under its jurisdiction are required to apply to it for a TUE, and when ; (2) which TUE decisions of another Anti-Doping Organizations (ADOs) it will automatically recognize in lieu of such application, in accordance with Article 7.1(a); and (3) which TUE decisions of other ADOs will have to be submitted to it for recognition, in accordance with Article 7.1(b).” (2016 ISTUE 5.6). See also 2016 ISTUE 5.3.
TUE application form: “ADOs shall make the application form they want Athletes to use available for download from their websites.” (2016 ISTUE 6.1)
Recommended / Best Practice:
Link to the Prohibited List in force and relevant Summary of Modifications: “…each Signatory shall take appropriate steps to distribute the Prohibited List to its members and constituents.” (WADC Art. 4.1)
Link to IF’s anti-doping rules (recognized as Code compliant by WADA, ratified by IF and in force)
Annual report: “ADOs shall, at least annually, publish publicly a general statistical report of their Doping Control activities with a copy provided to WADA” (WADC 14.4). It is not a requirement to it publish online, however this is recommended.
Link to WADA’s website
Full definition of ‘Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs)’ in line with Art. 2, WADC
Definition of ‘International-Level Athlete’ as found in the IF’s anti-doping rules (usually in the preface or list of definitions), and what is different about this group of athletes in terms of TUE applications, results management/appeals, etc.
List or calendar of IF International Events, i.e. the list of events under the IF’s jurisdiction, and definitions of ‘Event Period’, ‘In-Competition’ and ‘Out-of- Competition’ as per the IF’s rules)
Athlete Consent Form used by the IF (template on WADA’s website/often as appendix of IF’s anti-doping rules) and any IF-specific agreements that contain information on anti-doping for the various levels of athletes, athlete support personnel, etc.
Details on IF’s athlete retirement process and return to competition policy as relates to anti-doping
Information on managing the risks of nutritional supplements, e.g. WADA’s Q&A
on nutritional supplements
IF’s testing pool and whereabouts information: Registered Testing Pool (RTP) criteria/ list, other testing pools, whereabouts requirements. Note: as long as all the RTP athletes are entered correctly in ADAMS, there is no need to put the name of the athletes on the website to make the information available to other signatories.
ADAMS: Link to the ADAMS login page and requirements for an ADAMS account
Links to WADA’s free online educational resources:
- Athlete Learning Program about Health & Anti-Doping (ALPHA)
- Doping Control Process Video
- Coach True
- Coach’s Tool Kit
- Sport Physician’s Tool Kit (This link will be updated at the end of 2016)
- Athlete Reference Guide to the 2015 Code
- Dangers of Doping: Get the Facts leaflet
- Play True Quiz
- Play True Quiz (Youth)
- At-a-Glance series: About Anti-Doping, The Doping Control Process, TUEs, Whereabouts
- Other WADA videos on YouTube related to numerous anti-doping topics: youtube.com/user/wadamovies
- An information resource for parents will be available in the near future
‘Report Doping’ link
IF results management process
Publication of full decisions and, depending on IF’s publication policy, table or
document listing the status of each pending case
Link to the Prohibited Association List
IF’s Anti-Doping Pledge with a list and photos of ambassador athletes who support the pledge
List of acronyms commonly used in anti-doping (in web text or separate document)
IF anti-doping contact person, contact email or contact form for questions relating to all aspects of anti-doping (for ADAMS, TUEs, testing, results management, etc.)
Any other IF-specific anti-doping information that would be of use for key website users
To add a “Web Sticker” on your site that points to ADAMS, select one of the options below
by pasting the associated code into your web page.
Web Sticker 1: 120px x 40px
Web Sticker 2: 190px x 60px
Web Sticker 3: 240px x 60px
To add a “Web Sticker” on your site that points to CoachTrue, select one of the options below by pasting the associated code into your webpage. The Web Stickers are animated and will appear in three languages online: English, French and Spanish. Click on the link above to see the animations.
Web Sticker 1: 120px x 40px
Web Sticker 2: 160px x 60px
Web Sticker 3: 468px x 60px
Web Sticker 4: 240px x 60px
Web Sticker 5: 190px x 60px
Play True Quiz: http://quiz.wada-ama.org/linkProgram
To add a “Web Sticker” on your site that points to the Play True Quiz, select one of the options below. The Web Stickers are animated and will appear in English and in French online. Click on the link above to see the animations.
Web Sticker 1: 120px x 40px
Web Sticker 2: 160px x 60px
Web Sticker 3: 120px x 240px
Web Sticker 4: 240px x 60px
Web Sticker 5: 190px x 60px
ADAMS login page: https://adams.wada-ama.org
ALPHA – e-learning for athletes: http://alpha.wada-ama.org/login/index.php
At-a-Glance: About Anti-Doping leaflet: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/general- anti-doping-information/at-a-glance-about-anti-doping
At-a-Glance: The Doping Control Process leaflet: https://www.wada- ama.org/en/resources/doping-control-process/at-a-glance-the-doping-control-process
At-a-Glance: TUEs leaflet: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/science-medicine/at-a- glance-therapeutic-use-exemptions-tues
At-a-Glance: Athlete Whereabouts leaflet: https://www.wada- ama.org/en/resources/whereabouts/at-a-glance-athlete-whereabouts
Athlete Reference Guide to the 2015 Code: https://wada-main- prod.s3.amazonaws.com/resources/files/wada-reference-guide-to-2015-code.pdf
Dangers of Doping: Get the Facts leaflet: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/general- anti-doping-information/dangers-of-doping-get-the-facts
Global DRO: http://www.globaldro.com/Home
Global DRO link to other countries: http://www.globaldro.com/home/other-countries
International Standard for Testing and Investigations: https://www.wada- ama.org/en/resources/world-anti-doping-program/international-standard-for-testing-and- investigations-isti-0
International Standard for TUEs: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/therapeutic-use- exemption-tue/international-standard-for-therapeutic-use-exemptions-istue
International Standards (5): https://www.wada-ama.org/en/international-standards Level the Playing Field video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZY-syOmqNQList of List of NADOs: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/code-signatories
List of RADOs: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/regional-anti-doping-organizations-rado
Play True Quiz: http://quiz.wada-ama.org/
Play True Quiz – Youth version: http://quiz.wada-ama.org/youth/
Prohibited List (and Summary of Modifications of the new List): https://www.wada- ama.org/en/resources/science-medicine/prohibited-list
Prohibited List website: http://list.wada-ama.org/
Sport Physician’s Tool Kit – download version: https://www.wada- ama.org/en/resources/education-and-awareness/sport-physicians-tool-kit
Sport Physician’s Took Kit – online version: https://www.wada- ama.org/en/resources/education-and-awareness/sport-physicians-tool-kit-online-version
WADA’s Questions & Answers directory: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/questions-answers
WADA’s Q&A on TUEs: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/questions-answers/therapeutic-use- exemption-tue
WADA videos on YouTube: www.youtube.com/user/wadamovies
WADA’s webpage on ADAMS: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/adams
WADA website: https://www.wada-ama.org/
WADA website – resources section: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources
What is WADA? video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=XsTYYGELvFc
World Anti-Doping Code: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/what-we-do/the-code